World Heritages in Italy Part 1

Assisi (World Heritage)

Several buildings that commemorate Francis of Assisi (1181/82 –1226) are part of the world heritage. The city was shaped by the work of the saint and his Franciscan order and is one of the most important art centers in Italy due to the outstanding buildings and frescoes. The Basilica of San Francesco, which was built in the 13th century as the burial place of the saint, is of paramount importance. The abbey church is considered one of the most beautiful churches in Italy due to its magnificent frescoes by Cimabue, Giotto, Simone Martini and the Lorenzetti brothers.

Assisi: facts

Official title: Assisi, basilica and memorials of St. Francis
Cultural monument: Numerous architectural monuments and works of art to commemorate the life and work of St. Francis of Assisi; Franciscan monastery with Basilica di San Francesco, consisting of a Romanesque lower church (1228–1230) with side chapels and crypt (1828, 1925 to 1932) and a single-nave Gothic upper church (1230–1253); both churches richly painted with frescoes between 1280 and 1330; Lower church: Chapel “Martinsfresken” by Simone Martin; Transept “Passion Christi” by Pietro Lorenzetti, Francis portrait by Cimabue; Upper Church: »Franziskusfresken« (28 depictions from the life of Francis) by Giotto, 34 scenes from the Old and New Testament by students of Ciambue; also: Church of Santa Chiara (1257–1265), Monastery of San Damiano, Basilica of S. Maria degli Angeli (1569–1679 / 1928) with the Porziuncola chapel (first Franciscan monastery and place where Franz von Assisis died); Hermitage of the Eremo delle Carceri on Monte Subasio
Continent: Europe
Country: Italy
Location: Assisi, Province of Perugina
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Medieval works of art as a milestone in European architecture and art history

Assisi: history

89 BC Chr. Asisium municipality
11./12. Century The heyday of the free city of Assisi
1181 or 1182 Birth of Francis of Assisi, actually Giovanni Bernardone
1209 Foundation of the Franciscan Order by Francis of Assisi
1212 Together with Chiara (Clare of Assisi) founding of the Order of the Poor Clares
1213-15 Pilgrimages to Spain and France
1219 Pilgrimages to Egypt
1224 Stigmatization
1226 Francis of Assisi dies
1228 Canonization, start of construction of the Basilica di San Francesco
1500 Assisi part of the Papal States (with interruptions until 1860)
1997 Earthquake, severe damage to the basilica
2005 Completion of the restoration work on the basilica

Aeolian Islands (World Heritage)

According to politicsezine, the world heritage includes the Aeolian Islands (formerly Aeolian Islands) on the north coast of Sicily. The seven larger and five smaller islands are all of volcanic origin and formed within the last million years. The area is dominated by the Stromboli and Vulcano volcanoes. The volcanic activities have been thoroughly researched since the 18th century.

Aeolian Islands: facts

Official title: Aeolian Islands
Natural monument: Nature reserve with a total of 12.16 km², consisting of seven larger islands (Lipari, 3.76 km²; Vulcano, 2.10 km², Salina: 2.68 km²; Stromboli, 1.26 km²; Filicudi, 1.50 km²; Alicudi, 0.52 km²; Panarea, 0.34 km²) and five smaller islands (Basiluzzo, Dattilo, Lisca Nera, Bottaro and Lisca Bianca); all islands of volcanic origin and formed within the last 1 million years; volcanoes still active on Vulcano and Stromboli, whose typical eruption forms are part of international terminology
Continent: Europe
Country: Italy
Location: Tyrrhenian Sea, 45 km northeast of Sicily
Appointment: 2000
Meaning: Important research institutes in the geosciences since the 18th century; Testimony to the formation and destruction of islands by volcanism; Basis for the observation of persistent volcanic phenomena
Flora and fauna: typical Mediterranean vegetation, over 900 different species, four of which are endemic, including: Bassia saxicola (thorn melon), Dianthus rupicola (rock carnation), Silene hicesiae (catchwort); only small occurrences of the original Allepo and Maritime Pine populations; Occurrence of numerous continental European bird species, with the Aeolian Islands as the southern limit of their range; 40 species endangered, ten of them on the red list; among the vertebrates endemic garden dormouse species, seven bat species, seven reptile species, among the invertebrates 15 endemic species

Hadrian’s Villa (World Heritage)

Hadrian’s Villa near Tivoli is a large palace complex that was built in the early 2nd century by Emperor Hadrian (76-138). The monumental villa was the emperor’s favorite residence. The extensive complex consisted of more than 30 buildings with temples, baths and libraries and resembled a palace city.

Hadrian’s Villa: Facts

Official title: Hadrian’s Villa
Cultural monument: Around two square kilometers of villa complex with the actual Villa Adriana and numerous ancillary buildings, thermal baths, temples, spacious gardens, colonnades, statues and man-made ponds, mostly based on Greek and Egyptian models; with Poikile (232 x 97 m large columned garden courtyard), Hall of the Philosophers, Kanopos, Serapis Temple, Piazza d’Oro, maritime and Greek theater, Tempe Valley with a replica of Hades
Continent: Europe
Country: Italy
Location: Tivoli, northeast of Rome
Appointment: 1999
Meaning: Unique embodiment of the architecture of the ancient Mediterranean world

Hadrian’s Villa: History

1st century BC Chr. First development of the site
117 Appointment of Hadrian as emperor
118-125 First construction phase of Hadrian’s Villa
126 Establishment of the Pantheon in Rome by Hadrian
128-134 Second construction phase
138 Hadrian’s death
after 330 Parts of the villa were dismantled by Constantine the Great and brought to Constantinople; afterwards the facility fell into disrepair (used as a quarry in the Middle Ages)
17./18. Century Looting of the ruins; Statues and mosaics distributed in museums across Europe
1870 Takeover of the villa by the Italian state; then systematic excavations; Plant partially restored and rebuilt

Hadrian's Villa (World Heritage) 1