Geography

Western Europe

Western Europe is mainly a cultural / political concept created and used during the Cold War. This mainly means the European countries that participated in World War I. It differed earlier, and to some extent still, from Eastern Europe in areas such as economics, politics, culture and religion rather than on clear geographical boundaries. These borders overlap and fluctuate historically, making the definition of Western Europe more difficult to understand.

Alternatively, Western Europe is also one of Europe’s geographical regions which is far narrower than the traditional political inventories. According to Countryaah official site, Western Europe consists of these nine countries:

  • BELGIUM
  • FRANCE
  • NETHERLANDS
  • LIECHTENSTEIN
  • LUXEMBOURG
  • MONACO
  • SWITZERLAND
  • GERMANY
  • AUSTRIA

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein is a principality located between Switzerland and Austria. Liechtenstein is one of Europe’s three “dual- inland states ” (along with Andorra and Moldova ), and the only German-speaking country that does not have direct borders with Germany.

The principality is a constitutional monarchy. Liechtenstein has 11 municipalities. The capital is Vaduz, where the prince is also housed. Liechtenstein has the world’s second highest gross domestic product per capita. per capita of 162,000 Swiss francs (2006) corresponding to approx. 570,000 Danish kroner.

TIMELINE:

2003 – A referendum gave the green light for a constitutional reform that did Liechtenstein to Europe’s only absolute monarchy in which the Prince personally appoints the government and judges, in addition he has also received authority to dissolve the National Assembly.

2006 – Prince Hans Adam II of Liechtenstein is declared one of the richest heads of state in the world with a total fortune of more than 2 billion. pound. His art collection is on display at the Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna. He has a great interest in ufology, and has donated a lot of money to the cause through MUFON, CUFOS & Fund for UFO Research.

2011 – Liechtenstein is one of the richest countries in the world and one of Europe’s smallest. The country has received international criticism due to the prince’s great power and the country’s undemocratic arrangements.

Luxembourg

Luxembourg, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked state in Western Europe. It borders Belgium to the north and west, Germany to the east and France to the south. Luxembourg has a population of 524,853 (2012) and an area of ​​2,586 square kilometers, making it one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe.

TIMELINE:

1659 – November 7. The Peace of the Pyrenees ended the Franco-Spanish War of 1635 to 1659 between France and Spain, which was originally part of the Thirty Years’ War. It was signed on November 7, 1659 on the Île des Faisans (Pheasant Island), a small island in the border river Bidassoa in the Pyrenees near the Atlantic Ocean.

Luxembourg was occupied by German troops during World War I and II.

Switzerland

Switzerland is a landlocked state in Central Europe. The country borders Germany to the north, Liechtenstein and Austria to the east, Italy to the south and France to the west.

TIMELINE:

1978 – March 2. The body of film comedian, director and billionaire Charlie Chaplin is abducted from a Swiss cemetery. The abductors demand a large ransom from the widow, who refuses to pay.

Austria

Austria, officially the Republic of Austria is a federal state in Central Europe, and consists of 9 federal states, each with its own parliament and government. Austria is surrounded by land on all sides and is adjacent to Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the west, Italy and Slovenia to the south, Hungary and Slovakia to the east and Germany and the Czech Republic to the north. The capital is Vienna. Austria has 8.3 million residents, three-quarters of which belong to the Roman Catholic believe. The official language is German, spoken in dialectal forms. In addition, Slovenian, Croatian and Hungarian are recognized minority languages.

TIMELINE:

3350-3110 BCE – Ötzi (also called the iceman or – jokingly-quasi-scientifically – Homo tyrolensis ) is the nickname for the more than 5,000-year-old mummified remains of a human, which were found on September 19, 1991 at an altitude of more than 3,200 meters on a glacier at the Italian-Austrian border. The name comes from the fact that the remains were found in the Ötztal Alps in Tyrol. The mummy is exceptionally well preserved and is considered Europe’s oldest, from about 3300 BC, ie. the Copper Age, which is also considered part of the Neolithic.

1756 – January 27. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, prodigy, and one of the greatest and most acclaimed composers, was born. He died at a very young age, 35 years, but he managed to create his life’s work that covered all the musical genres of his time: operas, ballet music, symphonies, solo concerts (for piano, violin and viola, horn, flute, clarinet and oboe), masses, songs, string quartets, sonatas and much other chamber music.

Monaco

Monaco is a principality located on the north coast of the Mediterranean. The official name of the country is Principauté de Monaco . It is 3.5 km long and is surrounded by the French department of the Alpes Marítimes, located next to the Mediterranean Sea, a few kilometers from Italy. The country has a constitutional monarchy. Monaco is the world’s second smallest country, and has the world’s largest population density for a country. Monaco is especially known for its casino, Casino de Monte Carlo, and for its tax freedom. The casino is especially known for having been used in several movies and books, especially the James Bond movies / books ” Casino Royale “, ” Never Say Never Again ” and ” GoldenEye “.

Every year, Formula 1 races are run in Monaco. When the Grand Prix is ​​held in Monaco, it is held on the ordinary roads, which are used on a daily basis by the people of Monaco. Gare de Monaco-Monte-Carlo is Monaco’s only railway station and has connections to France and Italy.

The area that today constitutes Monaco has been inhabited since the Stone Age. The Monaco cliff that rises above the Mediterranean has throughout history been the haunt of many primitive tribes. The Ligurians were the first permanent residents of the area’s mountains and had a reputation for being used to working in harsh conditions. The Monaco coast and port were the road to the sea for one of these Ligurian people: the Oratelli de Peille.

There is a suspicion that Monaco has become a financial paradise that puts banks into money laundering.

TIMELINE:

1956 – On April 19, the newly retired American actress, Grace Kelly, marries Prince Rainier III, and the event was filmed and shown globally, helping to raise awareness of the small principality.

1982 – Princess Gracy Kelly dies on September 14, when she suffered a minor brain haemorrhage and drove across a hillside just outside Monaco. Along with her in the car was the daughter, Princess Stephanie, who survived with minor injuries. Grace Kelly lay in the respirator for several days, after which her husband, Prince Rainier, gave permission to turn off the respirator.

1998 – An Israeli citizen is involved in money laundering linked to the Latin American drug mafia. At the same time, suspicion was raised of money from the Russian mafia, and an investigative commission headed by a judge was set up, which later dissolved the commission.

2004 – The British court sentences Stephen Troth, an employee of the banking group HSBC, to 9 years in prison for fraud worth 10 million. US $ in Monaco. The fraud had been committed against celebrities such as race driver Michael Schumacher. A court in Monaco had already sentenced him to 4 years in prison in 2002.

2005 – Rainer III dies on April 6, after 56 years as Prince of Monaco. His son, Prince Albert II, succeeded him.

2009 – In May, the OECD removes Monaco from the list of countries that will not cooperate in the fight against economic crime.

Western Europe