Upper Croatia and Slavonia

Archaeological investigations in Croatia and in Slavonia (Serbo-Croatian Slavonija; Sclavonia in medieval docs) have not so far brought to light monumental complexes of the Paleochristian age; however, it is possible to suppose its existence in the area of ​​the Roman cities of Siscia (Sisak), Cibalae (Vinkovci) and Mursa maior (Osijek). Important sites from the period of the great migrations have been found, in particular the paleochroate necropolis of Čadjavica, from where numerous finds and jewels of the century come from. 7th (Zagreb, Arheološki muz.); are to be dated to the secc. 9th and 10th the funerary objects of Bijelo Brdo (Zagreb, Arheološki muz.), A town in Slavonia near Osijek, whose toponym qualifies a group of goldsmiths that constitutes the ‘culture of Bijelo Brdo’. There are also the so-called Radon Bible, written around the 800 (Vienna, Öst. Nat. Bibl., 1190), an ivory diptych of the century. 11th, formerly a binding plate, the cloak of the Magyar ruler Ladislao I the Holy, from c. 1043-1095. (both in Zagreb, Riznica Zagrebačke katedrale), and finally a Byzantine reliquary in gilded copper with cloisonné enamel figures (Berlin, Mus. für spätantike und byzantinische Kunst). construction of the Romanesque cathedral, of which all traces have been lost. Pieces of early medieval liturgical furnishings were found in Sisak and Marija Gorska, near Lobor (Zagreb, Arheološki muz.); in Volarica, in the Lika region, there is a relief of the century. 12 ° (Karaman, 1948) with interwoven ornamentation still of early medieval imprint. A group of early Romanesque sculptures, furniture of a religious building was found in Ilok (Zagreb, Arheološki muz.) The Romanesque religious architecture is reduced in Croatia to a modest group of monuments. In the coastal town of Senj, the cathedral, built in the 13th century. 12th-13th, retains part of the brick facade started with blind arches. The bell tower of St. George in Belec, N of Zagreb, incorporates on the ground floor a vaulted room that once belonged to a Romanesque chapel.

According to physicscat, small churches are found in Križovljani and Koprivna, in Slavonia; the first Cistercian abbey of S. Maria di Topusko (Toplica), founded in 1208 and excavated in the last century, had three naves and an eastern three-apsidal block. The investigations carried out in the years 1986-1989 on the monumental remains of the Benedictine monastery of Rudine, near Pozega, in Slavonia, they made it possible to reconstruct both the three-nave abbey system and the cloistered factories; Furthermore, the architectural sculpture is of considerable quality to Rudine: capitals and shelves are worked with stylized human figures or decorated with anthropomorphic and zoomorphic protomes conceived with originality within a marked primitive expressionism. bronze (11th-12th century) kept in the church of Martinšćica. Among the contemporary illuminated manuscripts we must mention: a Passionario, from the end of the century. 11 °, produced from a Dalmatian scriptorium, the Sacramentary of s. Margherita, of Hungarian origin and in Zagreb since 1094, the Exceptiones moralium Gregorii papae, of the century. 12 °, from southern Italy, and the Breviary of s. Justina, Padua’s work from the first half of the 13th century (Zagreb, Metropolitanska Knjižnica, MR 164; MR 126; MR 138; MR 72 / II). 12th and 13th cities, villages and castles were enriched with stone architecture, while previously the building patrimony had been mainly in wood and the defensive system consisted of embankments; fortified settlements settled on hills (e.g. Grič in Zagreb), above natural elevations of the land (Kaptol in Zagreb, Križevci), in valleys crossed by roadways (Samobor, Krapina, Požega) or in marshy lowlands (Varaždin, Virovitica). The oldest nuclei of the castles of Medvedgrad and Susedgrad, in the district of Zagreb, Kalnik, Cesargrad, Grebengrad, Kostelgrad, Samobor and Okić, in northern Croatia, date back to this period, as well as the castles by Pakrac, of Cernik, Kamengrad and Požega, in Slavonia. In Croatia the most prestigious architectural feat is the gothic cathedral of Zagreb, which, despite the restoration in style carried out in the nineteenth century, still retains the medieval appearance acquired in the late thirteenth century and in the fourteenth century. After the destruction of the Romanesque cathedral at the time of the Tatar invasion (1242), the bishop Stefano immediately started its reconstruction by building next to the ruined complex, between 1242 and 1247, the gothic chapel of S. Stefano, now inserted in the archbishop’s palace. Bishop Timoteo, chaplain of Pope Urban IV, had the foundations of the new primatial laid on the site of the Romanesque basilica; during his government the sacristy was built in 1272 and the choir in 1284. The layout of the cathedral is similar to that of the collegiate church of Saint-Urbain in Troyes (1262-1266), commissioned by Urban IV, a native of that city; it was therefore considered that Timothy could have received the project from the pope himself. In the fourteenth century the perimeter walls of the factory were raised; the insignia of the Hungarian-Croatian king Ludwig (1342-1382) was affixed to the façade, which originally featured a double bell tower. The Cistercian abbey of Topusko was rebuilt between the end of the century. 13th and the beginning of the following to replace the Romanesque one, the facade of which was maintained by decorating it with a Gothic window.

The church of Remete, near Zagreb, and that of Remetinec, to the north of the Croatian capital, they date back to the beginning of the fourteenth century; later are the sculptures of the portal of St. Mark in Zagreb (second half of the 14th century), which are similar to the products that came from the Prague workshop of the Parlers (Horvat, 1960). Brinjie Castle was equipped with a Gothic castral chapel, while a small church with a central plan with a Romanesque portal still remains in the ruins of the fortress of Medvedgrad.The abbey of Bijela near Duravar (1300) was the most representative example of Gothic architecture in Slavonia. Currently irrelevant remains survive; its medieval appearance is however handed down by nineteenth-century drawings and vintage photographs: the church had a single nave with a polygonal apse and a gallery ran along the counter-façade. The Franciscan church of S. Maria di Ilok, founded in the mid-14th century, underwent neo-Gothic renovations in the last century. The oldest and at the same time highest artistic level Croatian frescoes decorate the sacristy of Zagreb cathedral (c. 1270). At present, only isolated figures of saints are legible, while the scene of the Last Judgment was lost in the nineteenth-century reconstruction. In addition to still late Romanesque styles enriched by Byzantine elements, they also show a strong elongation of the bodies almost as a prefiguration of the Gothic; the cycle is attributable to a master of the Roman-Lazio environment, who joined the retinue of Bishop Timothy, on the basis of the relationships that exist between these frescoes and the almost contemporary paintings of the crypt of the cathedral of Anagni and of the Sacro Speco in Subiaco. S. Stefano in Archbishopric of Zagreb was frescoed in the full century. 14th by artists of the Rimini school; Gothic paintings are also preserved in the S. George of Belec, in the S. Brixio in Kalnik, in the church of S. Elena near Čakovec and in the S. Giacomo in Ocura. Starting from the fourteenth century, the activity of various painters is also documented, including Paolo Veneziano (1355-1389), Stefano (1356) and Domenico pictor gallicus (1382). Gothic illuminated manuscripts of French production are preserved in Zagreb, as for example. the Biblia pulchra et solemnis (Metropolitanska Knjižnica, MR 159), so mentioned in the inventory of the century. 14th, a small-format Bible and two pontificals.

Upper Croatia and Slavonia