The literacy level of women is 92.5, in contrast to only 1.4% (2015) of men are ignorant of reading and writing. Efforts to increase the school attendance of girls have been effective, although the number of girls in secondary schools and universities can still be increased.
However, improving the situation of women is one of the great challenges for politics and society. The Global Gender Gap Study by the World Economic Forum, which measures the value of gender equality, found that in the areas of participation in the labor market, equal pay and women in management positions, the road to equality is still a long one. The number of women in political office also leaves a lot to be desired. With the founding of the republic in 1923, the ground was prepared for formal equality: women should be pro-western, visible in public life and well educated in order to contribute to the building of the new state.
Women and law
The legal position of women has been at EU level since the revision of family law. In 1988 a law on domestic violence was passed: third parties can file complaints on behalf of women. The police can prohibit the violent partner from accessing the communal apartment.
Since 2002, a new Turkish civil code has ensured equality between men and women in marriage: The following has been deleted: “The head of the marital union is the husband”, “The choice of marital residence is incumbent on the husband”, “The representative of the marital union is the husband “,” In the event of a disagreement on the question of guardianship, the will of the husband is to be given priority “. The age at marriage for both sexes has been raised to 17 and” Separation of property with share of property “is the legal property regime.
The implementation has not yet reached the heads of the police, public prosecutors and judges sufficiently. Women affected by violence still find no support from the authorities or society.
Women and politics
Ataturk envisaged a prominent position for women in the construction of the new republic. As early as 1934 he introduced active and passive women’s suffrage (long before many European countries). Nevertheless, scientists and experts from various think tanks claim that the situation for women has never been as positive as it is today and thus demystify Ataturk’s founding myth of equal rights for women.
According to mathgeneral, Tansu Ciller was the first female prime minister in the early 1990’s, but in June 2015 only 98 women (18%) were represented in the Turkish parliament. The pro-Kurdish HDP has 40 female mandate holders. Overall, the proportion of women is increasing in all parties. Due to the poor ranking on the list, the leap into parliament often does not succeed.
Family as a collective identity factor
Family is considered to be a central value in Turkish society. It is the smallest autonomous unit in human life. Ideally, children are part of a fulfilled life.
A rural-urban divide can be observed in terms of divorce rates. The countrywide divorce rate is 11%, in Istanbul it is 13% and in southeastern Van 1%. Fortunately, however, the proportion of arranged marriages fell by 54%, although this is still good practice. In the assessment, a distinction can be made between forced marriages and arranged marriages.
Different forms of family coexistence can be found. The economic conditions determine the values between traditional and postmodern. Since the emergence of a religious middle class, this line of demarcation is no longer inevitable and traditionally living families can also be found in secure circumstances.
The extended family network over several generations can be found in the areas of the southeast and among Kurds. The major clans are headed by a ruling family, while the other families work the fields. The principles based on feudal structures intervene in the family affairs of the community. There are strictly demarcated spaces for the sexes and a strong segregation between men and women, between the public and the private sphere.
Also in the villages or the outskirts of the big cities (Gecekondus) there is a close cohesion and a strong social control over one’s own family. In the village environment one was very dependent on the neighbors and thus obliged to adapt. Even after they emigrated to the cities, this concept of honor was retained as a chance for survival in the new world. Religion became a means in social struggle. The ascent is associated with the support of needy family members.
So far, modern forms of life can only be found sporadically and only in the big cities. However, the number of singles, women living alone, one-child families and couples is increasing.