History

Spain in the 1930’s Part I

Primo de Rivera, full of energy and good will but learning the burdensome task, without a real political base in the country, and ultimately also abandoned by the king, who asked for the resignation of the dictator, left power on January 28, 1930. General Berenguer was chosen as successor, as the need for a military dictatorship of transition between the old regime and the new was evident. But on the day de Rivera fell a cry rose simultaneously in the most sensitive centers of Spain: “down with the king” The crown itself was thus called to account for its responsibilities. In this arduous moment, Berenguer, who had been so prudent and shrewd in Morocco, failed in his task: instead of facing the opponents of the crown who asked for the constituent with more decision and frankness, he tried to stall,military juntas. To aggravate the situation was the decision to hold first the municipal elections and then the parliamentary ones. It was evident the will to gain time, to turn the obstacle, to wait for passions to calm down and souls to be disposed to forgetfulness.

According to picktrue, the issue of the king’s responsibility was to be avoided at all costs. A slogan sounded: the king is irresponsible. But the conduct of the ministry had the most unfortunate effects. Suddenly, the elections which were supposed to have a “neutral” character turned into a sort of plebiscite on the regime. Spain was divided between tradition and revolution, the monarchy and the republic. The outcome of these covert “constituent” elections was disastrous; the divided right-wing parties, without organization, without a common plan of action, contributed to making the defeat of April 12, 1931 even more sensational. were mostly conservative. Everyone was amazed at the result, starting with the socialists themselves. The inability of the government had caused the catastrophe. To the ambiguous appeal of the government the nation responded with the tacit dismissal of its king. The king, having understood that the monarchy was over, behaved with the greatest dignity: he refused to abdicate, and agreed to leave to avoid civil war. The monarchy fell on April 14, and a provisional revolutionary government was soon proclaimed chaired by Alcalá Zamora, who eight years earlier had been Minister of War in the last constitutional cabinet, and who had recently been arrested for plotting against the security of the state. ambiguous appeal of the government the nation responded with the tacit dismissal of its king. The king, having understood that the monarchy was over, behaved with the greatest dignity: he refused to abdicate, and agreed to leave to avoid civil war. The monarchy fell on April 14, and a provisional revolutionary government was soon proclaimed chaired by Alcalá Zamora, who eight years earlier had been Minister of War in the last constitutional cabinet, and who had recently been arrested for plotting against the security of the state. ambiguous appeal of the government the nation responded with the tacit dismissal of its king. The king, having understood that the monarchy was over, behaved with the greatest dignity: he refused to abdicate, and agreed to leave to avoid civil war. The monarchy fell on April 14, and a provisional revolutionary government was soon proclaimed chaired by Alcalá Zamora, who eight years earlier had been Minister of War in the last constitutional cabinet, and who had recently been arrested for plotting against the security of the state.

The repercussions in the interior were considerable: the socialists, determined to exploit the success that had unexpectedly been presented to them, aimed directly at the conquest of power. Not having sufficient strength alone, they bowed to a sort of new “impious alliance” by joining the Iberian Anarchist Federation and its trade union organization. But the violent conquest of power failed; and there was the first republican government formed of socialists and radicals.

In July there were the elections of the constituent Cortes and the success of the left coalition was outlined. In December 1931 the Constitution of the new Spain was proclaimed (see spain: Constitutional order, p. 214), of an Enlightenment character and which once again demonstrated the political immaturity of the country, caused by the lack of a bourgeoisie operating in its team. social.

Alcalá Zamora was appointed president of the second republic; Azaña replaced him in the office of prime minister. Between April and December 1931, and subsequently until December of 1933 the Republican government, which took office immediately after the departure of Alfonso XIII, they acting dictatorially, as urged him to í are ideological reasons, the temperament of the individual, the advice of Moscow, and finally the mandate that he believed he had received indirectly from the country (based on the results of the municipal and constituent elections), he began to implement the socialist doctrines, legislating around topics of far-reaching consequences such as the nationalization of factories, relations between State and Church, the armed forces, education.

Spain in the 1930's 1