Geography

Middle East

The Middle East is a geopolitical and cultural area that usually covers southwest Asia and Egypt. The area consists of the countries around the southeastern part of the Mediterranean and east of it, as well as the countries of the Persian Gulf. It is not clearly defined which countries belong to the region.

According to Countryaah official site, the region of Middle East includes the following nations:

  • BAHRAIN
  • CYPRUS
  • UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
  • IRAQ
  • IRAN
  • ISRAEL
  • JORDAN
  • KUWAIT
  • LEBANON
  • OMAN
  • PALESTINE
  • SAUDI ARABIA
  • SYRIA
  • TURKEY (Asian part)
  • YEMEN
  • QATAR
  • EGYPT

United Arab Emirates

United Arab Emirates (commonly used in English: UAE which stands for United Arab Emirates ) is an oil-rich desert country located in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The country is a federation of seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai,
Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. The capital is Abu Dhabi. It borders Oman, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The United Arab Emirates is part of the Middle East.

TIMELINE:

2600-2000 BCE – The earliest evidence of a Bronze Age culture, Umm-an-Nar, was found near Abu Dhabi, the capital of the UAE.

1820 – Britain and the seven emirates conclude an agreement for Britain to take charge of defense and foreign policy. They were named the Treaty Coast. Before this, the area had gone by the name of the Pirate Coast due to the many organized piracy in the area.

1971 – December 2 – The United Arab Emirates is formed after the British, who had dominated the area for more than 100 years, withdrew. It was originally intended that Qatar and Bahrain should have been members, but they preferred to become independent. However, Ras Al Khaimah first joined the United Arab Emirates in 1972.

1999 – The Burj al Arab Hotel, the world’s most beautiful hotel, opens after almost five years of construction. Two years to the establishment of the island and three years to build the hotel, which with its 331 meters is the second tallest building in Dubai.

2010 – January 4. The Burj Khalifa was inaugurated after several years of postponing construction. At 828 meters, the skyscraper is the world’s tallest man-made structure ever built.

Jordan

Jordan is a country in the Middle East east of the Jordan River. The country lies between Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Israel and the West Bank. The country is a monarchy with a strong monarchy. King Abdullah II belongs to the Hashemite royal family, who consider themselves descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.

TIMELINE:

Prior to independence in 1946, Jordan, along with Palestine, was a mandate- controlled area of Britain.

After the Six Day War in 1967, Jordan lost its territories west of the Jordan River (West Bank).

Kuwait

Kuwait is a small country in the Middle East. It is located inside the Persian Gulf between Iraq and Saudi Arabia. In addition to the desert, there are enormous oil resources in the small country.

Kuwait’s economy and existence as a country are based on oil. The country is believed to have 10% of the world’s oil reserves underground. It has given the country great riches. It is also necessary as almost all foodstuffs are imported except fish. 90% of the country’s export revenue comes from the oil sector, while it accounts for 70% of the state’s revenue.

TIMELINE:

700s – Arabs moved to the good coasts of Kuwait.

1756 – Kuwait is reunited with the Al-Sabah family, in which the future rulers for more than 200 years came.

1899 – Due to the interests of the Turks and Germans in the country, Kuwait entered into a defense alliance with Britain.

1914 – The country becomes a British protectorate.

1961 – Kuwait becomes independent. For the next many years, Iraq claimed the country’s oil wealth, despite Iraq building up a huge debt to Kuwait.

1990 – The demands for oil wealth from Iraq culminate with the Gulf War. Iraq withdrew from Kuwait a year later.

1999 – Women’s suffrage is introduced and democratic rights are promoted more and more. No political parties are allowed, but you can stand alone. Kuwait is the GCC country with the best opportunity to gain political influence.

Oman

Oman is a sultanate in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Oman borders the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Oman is part of the Middle East.

TIMELINE:

1507 – Portuguese merchants arrive in Oman on their way to India. Even then, there were several large trading towns there. Soon after, British and Dutch merchants came to the country.

Qatar

Qatar (Dawlat Qatar) is an emirate on the Persian Gulf. According to the IMF, Qatar is the richest country in the world. This is i.a. due to the country’s incredibly large gas and oil reserves located underground. In addition, Qatar is a developing country, such as The Emirates, with incredibly large building and infrastructure projects, must secure the country in the future.

Qatar is a low, barren peninsula that stretches 160 km out into the Gulf. There are no rivers. The topography is predominantly flat with heights from 10 meters up to 73 meters in the Dukhan heights. Due to its location on the Persian Gulf, the climate is very hot all year round and there are often sandstorms.

In the Stone Age, Qatar was inhabited by hunters and gatherers, but was depleted in 5000 BC due to increasing drought. abandoned by humans. In the following millennia, Qatar was populated by only a few Bedouin families.

TIMELINE:

1760 – Immigrants Al Thani and Al Chalifa immigrated. In the ensuing time, there were many power struggles between the two groups. In 1783, the Al Chalifa family conquered the island of Bahrain, after which a large part of the tribe settled there.

1872-1914 – Qatar was part of the Ottoman Empire.

1939 – The first oil discoveries occur and the oil industry quickly becomes Qatar’s main source of revenue.

1971 – September 1. After the British retreat, Qatar proclaimed its independence and the Sheikh changed its title to Emir. That same year, the world’s largest natural gas area was discovered.

1972 – Emir Ahmad ibn Ali was ousted by his son Chalifa ibn Hamad, (1972–1995), who later developed oil and other industries.

1991 – Qatar joins Allied forces against Saddam Hussein’s Iraq in the Gulf War.

1995 – Chalifa ibn Hamad is ousted. The new Emir Hamad bin Khalifa ath-Than, (1995-) who initiated the beginning democratic reforms.

Since 1998, Qatar has been the headquarters of US troops in the Near East and was also the US command center in the March 2003 war against Iraq.

2006 – The 15th Asian Games take place in Doha.

2008 – A group with, among others, the Danish archaeologist Bo Madsen made a unique find of stone tools that were estimated to be around 700,000 years old.

Middle East