Hungary Medieval Arts Part V

In the phase comprised roughly between 1270 and 1330 the most lively building activity is testified by the cities – eg. Sopron, with the Franciscan church from around 1280. and the synagogue from around 1300, and Pozsony, with the church of the Franciscans consecrated in 1293 – and from the castles of the aristocracy, which saw its power increase in an increasing measure and which in the period of unrest that followed the extinction of the Arpadi family and the early Angevin age was engaged in the constitution of the own domains. Consequently, it is possible to identify regional schools around 1300, particularly in architecture, which mostly constitute local variants of a provincial character of a late Romanesque-Gothic style, adopted until the first half of the 14th century. The first enterprises promoted by the Anjou dynasty (v.) Are little known; what remains of the building intervention commissioned by the sovereign Charles I in the church of S. Maria in Székesfehérvár in the third decade of the century. 14 ° is characterized by a ‘reduced Gothic’ style which distinguishes the architecture of the Mendicant Orders. Only the royal seals allow us to hypothesize an artistic activity of the court with a certainly Central European imprint.

According to clothesbliss, the opinion according to which in the Angevin age artistic relations with Italy were automatically produced due to the Neapolitan origin of the dynasty is clearly false: in fact, when in 1300 Charles I was sent to the Hungary, the art of the Neapolitan court had different characteristics and the Hungarian court had little contact with Naples until 1328, the year of the death of the Duke of Calabria. art of the Angevin court in the second half of the reign of Charles I and in the first two decades of the reign of Louis I the Great (1342-1382) seems to have had a fundamentally Central European character and therefore a development similar to that which occurred in Bohemia and Austria. Recent archaeological investigations in the royal residence of Visegrád have identified in the first building (in use in 1335) a palace connected to a mint and a palatial building with a protruding enclosed balcony. The architectural works promoted by Charles I were carried out by his widow in his city of Óbuda (from 1343), where the remains of the church of the Virgin of the provost of St. Peter, the queen’s castle and the Clarisse monastery attest to a style that corresponds to that of the Mendicant Orders. Similar stylistic orientations are also evident in the cities: autonomous schools are attested in Sopron, Poszony, Łocse and in the Szepes region. A linear style essentially dominates in mural painting and wooden sculpture. Relations with Italian art of the fourteenth century are evident in various ways starting from the end of the second decade of the century. A decisive influence was exercised by the prelates who had attended the University of Bologna – and who had belonged to the Hungarian nation there – and the birth of the so-called Hungarian group of Bolognese miniature, including codes, is certainly due to the mediation of these intellectuals at the court. such as the Nekcsei Demeter Bible, from the circle of the Master of 1328 (Washington, Lib. of Congress, Pre-Accession 1), the Hungarian Legendary Angevin (Rome, BAV, Vat. lat. 8541; New York, Pierp. Morgan Lib., 360 BC; St. Petersburg, Ermitage, Gab. of drawings, no. 16930-16934), as well as both codices with the Decretals belonging to Nicola Vásári, by Niccolò di Giacomo (Padua, Bibl. Capitolare, A 24, A 25). The arrival in the Hungary from Naples of the goldsmith Petrus Simonis Gallici de Senis, whose only work attested in the country by documents is the third seal of Charles I in majesty (1331) is certainly to be traced back to the context of the financial reform of Charles I. ; the corpus of goldsmith works attributed to him cannot be confirmed. The third source is represented by dynastic ties; Certainly following the visit made in 1333-1334 by Charles I in Naples, a painter of Giotto’s orientation – as shown by the frescoes in the chapel of the palace – and a follower of Tino di Camaino, to whom the fragments of the tomb of St.. Margaret from the Dominican monastery on Margaret Island (Budapest, Budapesti Történeti Múz.).

A stylistic change in the court art of the Hungarian Angevin dynasty occurred after the first decade of the reign of Louis I. The Hungarian Illustrated Chronicle (Budapest, Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, lat. 404) shows, alongside Neapolitan stylistic elements of the late style of Orimina family of painters, including Prague influences (Luxembourg family tree in Karlštejn castle, Bohemia). The court art of Luigi today appears particularly linked to the Austrian courtly one, as shown by the fragments of the sculptures of c. 1360. of the wharf of the Cistercian abbey of Pilisszentkerest (Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Gal.), those coming from the chapel of the Golden Virgin of Pécs (Pécs, Janus Pannonius Múz.), from 1365 and after 1370, as well as fragments of the Angevin funeral chapel in Székesfehérvár (Székesfehérvár, Szent István Király Múz.). An influence from the art of the French court is evident in the goldsmith’s art, as documented by examples such as the second seal of majesty of Louis of 1363, the reliquaries (c. 1367) of the Hungarian chapel of the Aachen cathedral (Domschatzkammer) and, in particular in late epoch, the seal of majesty of Queen Mary, from 1383, and the clasps of Aachen cope (Domschatzkammer), dating back to about 1380. apex of their economic and political development: they were equipped with walls and saw the construction of Gothic churches (Pozsony, Sopron, Kolozsvár, Szászsebes od. Sebeş). L’ The influence of these centers is evident in the orientation, from time to time different, of the city construction sites and in the contribution of the local style that had developed in them on the profane architecture of the cities. There is little evidence of the importance of urban centers for Hungarian medieval painting and sculpture; for wooden sculpture there are, in particular, in the Szepes region.

Hungary Medieval Arts 5