Hungary Medieval Arts Part IV

The collegiate church of Duke Álmos in Dömös (consecrated around 1106 and dedicated to St. Margaret) has a Como-type architectural decoration. Around 1100 we encounter the first examples of figurative decoration, such as the lunette of the portal of the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár, the architectural members and the enclosure of the choir in Dombó and the figured tombstone from Aracs (od. Arača, in Voivodina) and kept in Budapest (Magyar Nemzeti Múz.). A group of churches with western towers – the cathedral of Eger, the Transylvanian churches of Harina (od. Herina) and Ákos (od. Acâs), the abbey of Boldva – shows an orientation towards liturgical customs typical of the movements of monastic reform of southern Germany (reform of Lotharingia, of Hirsau), trend also confirmed in the liturgical furnishings by a group of bronze objects imported from Bavaria and Lower Saxony and by the Admont Bible (Vienna, Öst. Nat. Bibl., Ser. nov. 2701-2702), which belonged to the abbey of Csatár, in the Hungary In the architectural decoration of the second phase of the cathedral of Esztergom (partial consecration in 1156), noble tendencies of Lombard influence are highlighted, which also appear in the final moment of the construction of St. Peter’s in Óbuda, whose reliefs of the choir enclosure are traced back to the Emilian circle of Niccolò. The preserved monuments show starting from the last third of the century. 12th, for the first time, different schools and stylistic trends of the same time. In the history of Hungarian art Pécs and Esztergom were considered successive phases of a single development, but since the architectural sculpture of Pécs has been assigned a chronology around 1170-1180 (the only documentary sure date is 1186 of the Benedictine abbey of Ercsi, whose architectural sculpture is linked to that of Pécs) it has been possible to verify that they proceed in parallel. Pécs seems to have had an influence above all in Transdanubia (e.g. in the royal basilica of St. Mary in Székesfehérvár, phase II; in the Benedictine abbey of Jásd; in the abbey of Szent Egyed in Somogyvár). In the royal palace and in the cathedral of Esztergom there is a picture of multiple stylistic references ranging from a architecture of Altorenan orientation through influences of the Antelamic style (around 1180) up to the reception of the Parisian Gothic (Porta speciosa, prior to 1196; Palatine chapel, around 1197).

In the same period, a Byzantine-style production is attested at the court of King Béla III (died in 1196), as shown by the scepter of the Hungarian coronation insignia and goldsmith works from Székesfehérvár (Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múz.) And a cross reliquary (Salzburg, Dommus.) The influences of the first Gothic court art appear in dynastic buildings such as the Cistercian abbey of Pilisszentkereszt, founded in 1193, the cathedral of Kalocsa II, the church of St. Pantaleon in Gács (od. Halič), around 1217, and had a notable effect on buildings commissioned by the aristocracy, such as the Premonstratensian abbey of Bény (od. Biňa), prior to 1217, the Premonstratensian church of Ócsa, prior to 1234, and the Benedictine abbey of Vértesszentkereszt. In the third decade of the century 13 ° stonecutters of the mature French Gothic from Chartres or Reims were active in the Hungary, consecrated in 1224; at the same time various stylistic trends from Bavaria and Lower Austria appeared, evident in the cathedral of Gyulafehérvár II, in the abbey of Lébény and in the architectural sculpture of Vértesszentkereszt. Between 1230 ca. and 1270, as a result of the noble opposition against the aristocracy and in particular during the reign of Béla IV (1235-1270), the strong orientation towards the French court style disappeared in favor of late Romanesque expressions originating from central Europe. The western region of the Hungary it has direct links with Bamberg in monuments such as the Benedictine abbey church of Ják and others related to it, in the Hungary and Lower Austria. In the central area of ​​the country the Bohemian and Moravian influences prevailed, determined by dynastic ties – such as the Premonstratensian church of Zsámbék, the royal castle of Óbuda and, after 1247, the church of the Virgin in Buda -, which also recur in Veszprém (chapel of Gisella) and in the surrounding area. An architecture similarly oriented in the proto-Gothic sense had its center in the Cistercian abbey of Kerc (od. Cîrţa) in Transylvania.

According to cachedhealth, the Mongol incursions, if they did not cause a profound fracture in the style, however, changed the objectives of architecture, such as the construction of castles, for example. in Visegrád, in Medvevár (od. Medvedgrad) near Zagreb and Léka (od. Lockenhaus, in Austria), and in fortified cities., the cross of Záviš (Prague, treasure of the cathedral), crowns such as those of Margaret Island (Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múz.) and of Płock (treasure of the priory) and the crown cross in Krakow (treasure of the cathedral) – a naturalistic ornamentation of Mosan origin appears. A fully Gothic architecture of a Central European character developed around 1260, for example. in the church of the Virgin in Buda, parallel to the orders of the king of Bohemia Přemysl Ottokar II (1253-1278) in Bohemia and Austria. Although both the Franciscans and the Dominicans had established their foundations in the Hungary starting from the 1920s. 13 °, their buildings, which until the end of the century showed strict observance, are preserved only from the second half of the thirteenth century. for a few works, such as first of all royal seals or the diptych of King Andrew III, the Venetian (1290-1301; Bern, Bernisches Historisches Mus.).

Hungary Medieval Arts 4