Hungary Medieval Arts Part III

The differences between the individual areas of the Hungary medieval are also evident in the light of the ecclesiastical topography. The settlements of monastic orders were more numerous in Transdanubia, where Benedictine and Premonstratensian monasteries were already found within the boundaries of the ancient settlement areas; the Cistercians oriented themselves, in particular in the century. 13 °, towards the areas of colonization, for example. Borsmonostor (od. Kloster Marienberg) and Szentgotthárd in the W, Topusko in the SW, Pétervárad (od. Petrovaradin) in the S and Kerc (od. Cîrţa) in the SE. The monasteries of the Pauline Order (or Monks of St. Paul the First Hermit) are also distributed in a similar way, while the convents of the Mendicant Orders were distributed evenly throughout the country, also affecting the cities that developed in the late century. 13th and 14th, which also stand out for this. From the historical and artistic point of view, the evaluation of the losses and devastation that affected the individual regions to varying degrees is of particular importance. The invasion of the Mongols of 1241-1242 was especially destructive in the Hungary east, up to the Danube and in the central part of the country, causing enormous damage and a decrease in the population in the Hungary eastern and Transylvania, while the Transdanubia was hit to a lesser extent; later not only the fortresses and the fortified cities built in stone acquired importance, but also the division of the country became evident. In a letter addressed around 1247 by King Béla IV (1235-1270) to the pontiff,

Another historical circumstance that had disastrous effects for the conservation of the monuments of the Middle Ages in the Hungary were the wars against the Turks of the secc. 16th and 17th; after the battle of Mohács (1526), ​​in 1541 the Hungarian territory was divided into three, as the central area of ​​the country, the southern Transdanubia and the southern areas were conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Under the Turkish domination and in particular during the wars waged to reconquer the territory, the medieval monumental heritage suffered substantial losses (consequently, archeology is of particular importance in these areas); Western Transdanubia and the Hungary northern instead in the secc. 16th and 17th centuries were part of the Habsburg Empire and have therefore preserved medieval monuments,

According to behealthybytomorrow, the tombs of important characters have a characteristic decoration, of a surprisingly unitary imprint, clearly rooted in the tradition of the art of the Eastern European steppes, whose chronology and disappearance can hardly be explained with the advent of Christianity. The poorer and simpler decoration of the artifacts coming from the graves of common people, on the other hand, testifies to a long continuity. If it is to be considered that after the allocation, in the second half of the century. 10 °, there have been changes in the type of life of the population, it is not possible to establish their extent and therefore the turning point of the Millennium between 997 and 1000 appears to be revolutionary from the historical and artistic point of view. -1038) was certainly a era of great political and cultural changes; however the monuments of the time underwent – mostly still in the Middle Ages – substantial alterations or destruction; furthermore, the attempts to fill in the gaps in the monumental heritage, assigning early dates to the preserved works, have not yielded results. It seems possible to confirm also on the historical-artistic level the link with the Latin West, already evident on the historical and historical-ecclesiastical level. In this sense, the orientation towards the Ottonian art models of the time of Emperor Henry II known as the Saint (1002-1024) appears decisive and therefore, albeit indirectly, a link with the forms of Carolingian art.

However, it seems that, after the death of Emperor Henry II and with the beginning of the attempts of the German sovereigns to subdue the reign of Hungary, this orientation is interrupted. After the death of Stephen I, difficulties arose caused by the struggle for succession: there was an uprising of the pagans and, in 1046, with King Andrew I (1046-1061) the collateral line in exile of the attacker Vazul came to power. as in the struggle for power the contending parties sought support from the German or the Byzantine emperor, similarly also in art a polarization between western and eastern orientations seems to have occurred. The private monasteries of the kings show in this era a great multiplicity of building typologies and a unitary architectural model of Byzantine imprint, which was also revived in the first private monasteries of the aristocrats (Zselicszentjakab, founded in 1061, and certainly also Feldebrő). This style also appears in the plastic ornamentation of the buildings of the southern regions, conquered in 1071 by Byzantium, as shown by the examples of Voivodina Bodrogmonostorszeg (od. Bački Monoštor), of the Benedictine abbey of Dombó (od. Novi Rakovac, preserved in Novi Sad, Vojvodjanski muz.), By Titel. The most important Byzantine piece of this era is the female crown with the depictions of the Eastern Emperor Michael VII Ducas Parapinace (1067-1078), Prince Constantine and King Géza I (1074-1077), almost entirely preserved as the lower part of the Sacred Crown of Hungary (Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múz.). King Ladislaus I the Holy (1077-1095) took a stand in favor of the Gregorian reform and in the meantime, despite the negative opinion of the pope about the annexation of Slavonia (with the foundation in 1091-1094 of the Zagreb cathedral), approached to the Benedictine reform and founded the abbey of Somogyvár to welcome monks from the Provençal monastery of Saint-Gilles near Arles (1091). The important turning point in ecclesiastical politics found expression in the renunciation of the investiture (1106) by King Colomanno (1095-1116): from that moment on the Hungary therefore it sided rather firmly on the Gregorian side. In Romanesque architecture a simple typology of triapsidal basilica without transept spread, which corresponded to the needs of the monastic communities. mostly not very conspicuous.

Hungary Medieval Arts 3