Hungary Medieval Arts Part II

The foundation of the political-administrative organization of the country was constituted by the system of committees, which for the most part were not regions in a geographical or cultural sense, but corresponded to the territories administered by a comes from the king’s castles and are therefore of little significance as a unit. historical-artistic. From the Late Middle Ages onwards there were attempts to articulate the country into larger territorial entities that were unsuccessful, nor was it possible for the aristocracy to establish their own lordships. A form of organization of the territory took shape with the Angevin king Charles I (1308-1342) starting from the twenties of the century. 14 ° through the establishment of a series of mints for the collection of the lucrum camerae tax throughout the country, and therefore in addition to Buda, Esztergom, Szerém,

The network of royal committees dates back to King Stephen I, who entrusted the territories belonging to the royal castles and the administration of these areas to the comites; starting from the 12th century, with the extension of the administration to previously uninhabited regions, new peripheral committees were formed in the country. In Transylvania, the privileged areas inhabited by the Saxons and the Székely remained outside this system. From the end of the century. 12 ° an increasing number of committees and royal castles were left to the aristocrats who, in the second half of the century. 13 °, became elements of the organization of the common nobility. Tradition attributes to St. Stephen the foundation of ten episcopal see, submitted to the archbishops of Esztergom and Kalocsa, but the dioceses were actually only gradually established. Esztergom, where an archbishop was already active immediately after 1001 and whose pre-eminence in the century. 13 ° is attested by the sources, he administered the suffragan dioceses, partly derived from ancient missions, in particular in the Transdanubia (Pécs, Veszprém and Győr) and in the Hungary northern (Nyitra, Vác, Eger); the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the foundations of the Crown and of the churches in the colonization territories was also reserved to the archbishops of Esztergom.

The archdiocese of Kalocsa seems to have shown a particular interest in the southern areas of Byzantine influence and in the missionary activity directed towards S; the archdiocese itself was unified with the see of Bács, certainly founded in the century. 12th in the South of the country. Its suffragan dioceses were those of Transylvania (Gyulafehérvár, od. Alba Iulia), as well as those of Bihar – transferred after 1091 by King Ladislao I the Holy (1077-1095) to Várad (od. Oradea) -, of Marosvár (moved to Csanád) and of Zagreb (1091/1094), founded by Ladislao I Both the internal subdivision of the country and its relations with the outside were determined by a system of long-distance roads, some of which had already been in use since Antiquity. One of the main arteries since the first millennium served long-distance trade with the East: furs, spices and luxury goods were in fact imported into the West via Transylvania to reach the markets of Regensburg and Prague. Important stations on this street were Brassó (od. Braşov), Nagyszeben (od. Sibiu), Arad in Transylvania; the salt transported from Transylvania along the Mures River also arrived in Szeged, on the Tisza; this same road reached and crossed the Danube at Pest and Buda, from where, via Esztergom Pozsony (od. Bratislava), it reached Vienna and beyond, as far as Regensburg; near Szeged a road branched off to the lower reaches of the Danube, which was the most important link with Byzantium. medieval consisted in the fact that most of the great connecting roads met near Pest and Buda; the Latin road also passed here, which came from Senj passing through Zagreb and Székesfehérvár, while the one connecting Venice to Vienna crossed the Hungary west and the city of Sopron. From Buda via Nyitra (od. Nitra) and Nagyszombat (od. Trnava) came a direct road to Brno and Prague and another that passed through Zsolna (od. Žilina) and led to Silesia, to Wroclaw. Two important roads branched off from Pest, one towards the NE which passed through Kassa (od. Košice) and, crossing the Szepes region (Lőcse, od. Levoča), led to Krakow, in Szolnok and Várad led to Kolozsvár (od. Cluj-Napoca), in Transylvania; a transverse link connected Várad to Kassa via Debrecen. Starting from Buda, the road that led to the region of Baranya (Pécs) and, even further, to Sirmium ran along the Danube towards the south.The road system played a different role in the various regions, determining the character and timing of cultural development and artistic.

According to beautypically, the first to be established, starting from the century. 11 °, were the centers of political administration and ecclesiastical life in Transdanubio, which since Roman times had a dense road network: in this region arose most of the dioceses, while the political administration was concentrated in the triangle between Esztergom, Buda and Székesfehérvár, an area that already in the century. 13 ° was cited as medium reigns. The oldest markets and cities arose at the bishop’s seats and the castles of the committees. With the settlement in the peripheral areas of the town and with the increase in artisanal production and the economy starting from the century. 13th new cities were formed, mostly located along the major roads near the borders: Sopron and Pozsony on the routes to Vienna, Nagyszombat on the road to Brno, Kassa, Lőcse, as well as Bártfa (od. Bardejov) and Eperjes (od. Prešov) on the way to Poland. The most important trading cities in Transylvania became Brassó, Nagyszeben and Kolozsvár. Due to the compulsory deposit law imposed by Vienna up to the 10th century. 14 ° it was difficult to practice long-distance trade and for this the kings of Hungary, Bohemia and Poland in 1335 agreed on an alternative route that favored above all Buda and Pest, from whose compulsory deposit right the cities of the Transylvania. The apex of urban development occurred at the beginning of the century. 15 °, when the most important commercial cities began to become free royal cities. As a consequence of this type of development, starting from the middle of the century. 13 ° the artistic centers gradually moved towards the new merchant cities. A feature of the Hungary medieval was the absence of modern merchant cities within the country; the phenomenon, particularly in the Late Middle Ages, contributed significantly to the development of large urban settlements with market rights.

Hungary Medieval Arts 2