Hello, my name is Fernanda, I am an architect, and today I decided to clarify some doubts always ask me and that I see a lot of forums and groups of architecture, in social networks, questions about architecture that I had about this wonderful profession before graduation.
But, my intention here is to guide both students who want to invest in the career of architect, urban planner and landscape architect, and clarify wanted are the responsibilities of architects for those who have you want to hire a professional to do your project.
Because I know that many people still have doubts about the architecture, don’t know if they hire an architect or engineer, or even if you hire an interior architect or an interior designer, just by being a profession as complex and multidisciplinary.
What is Architecture?
When I got to architectural school, I had a brief notion that the architect was responsible for building projects and to act in the area of interiors, but I had no idea that urbanism and landscaping entering into the training curriculum, in fact I confess that I didn’t even know what he was planning when I took the entrance exam for architecture. Seriously even!
But, I was scared and insecure about what people were saying to me when I said I had chosen architecture as a profession, how many times have I heard that architects were only allowed to design buildings up to 4 storeys (false), or that architects only did the decor and it was the engineer who designed and constructed houses and buildings (super fake).
The people saw architecture as an area of luxury, for rich people, a professional who worked mobiliando and gracing environments, but I found out that this was completely wrong, this is not what is to be an architect, we do not enfeitamos houses as if they were cakes of celebration, we design functional spaces, and comfortable for people to live!
Is this space the interior area of a building, or the building itself, or even a square, a park or even operate in the planning of cities, from the small to the large scale, the architect designs to provide quality of life for the people.
And not have to do only with aesthetics but with a broad notion of space, of its functionality and use by customers of materials and construction techniques, its relation with the environment.
Finally, physical aspects, social, cultural, environmental, economic, legislative, all of this to offer a space that is comfortable, enjoyable and, above all, functional.
In college the architecture is defined and supported by a tripod, whose bases are: firmitas, utilitas and venustas, that is, structure, utility and beauty.
The architecture can be summed up as the art of designing and arranging spaces to house the various human activities, spaces, these internal and external buildings of all sizes, heights, styles, and purposes. From bathrooms, living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, houses, buildings, shops, restaurants, hospitals, stadiums, airports, hotels, parks, squares and everything that you can imagine that houses human activities.
Where have people have architecture, so architecture is not an article of luxury, it is essential, it is social, it is public, it is private, it is a shelter, a protection, a facilitator and an aggregator of the human experience.
And through the design of the space, the architect promotes the match or the mismatch, promote privacy or community, promotes equality or hierarchy, promotes health or disease. Because the architecture of this around us, for good or for evil, made by the architects and amateur architecture influences us in ways unimaginable, in our psychological aspects, affecting our actions and affecting our health.
You are watching just as architecture cannot be summed up as a cake decoration, icing, folder american or whipped cream, because architecture has a filling, has color, flavor and has life and has a purpose.
Each architectural design, each line on the paper has meaning, has a purpose, a function.
So, the next time that they say to you that you will be playing LEGO in the college, sends this person … become better informed here in the ArquiDicas, of course! Sends links.
What makes an architect?
The architect makes it all the less sleep, the profession of the architect is to always be researching and looking for the best solution to meet the demands of its customers, and it does this by reading a lot, talking and observing the social behavior of the people. Yes, we see you!
The course of architecture should seriously include some matters of psychology, it’s no wonder that architecture is between the liberal arts and sciences, because in the end we are designing for the people, turning expectations into reality, making dreams come true.
Even if you have to discuss to argue with the client because it is not always what he wants is what he needs.
And the architect must reconcile different needs and views of customers and partners, always taking into consideration the constraints of the project.
What are the constraints? Are factors that limit the project, financial issues, legislative, spatial, environmental, etc. That many times until you determine the designed architecture.
Independent of the project, its size and its purpose in general, the architecture design is divided into some phases that help the professional understand the needs of the client, the conditions and the from for the planning of the space.
Phases of Architectural Design
The architectural design is divided into:
Program Needs: This stage occur the first conversations with the client where they are defined the needs of space, of experience, sectors, values, aesthetic, cultural, etc.
As it is also made to the survey of the physical data of the terrain, photos, videos, measurements, analysis of the environment, solar orientation, ventilation, noise, vegetation, and anything that can influence on the project. Also legal issues, the uses permitted, permissible and prohibited, here comes a study on the nature of the terrain, region, real estate documentation that contains important data that can hamper and even derail the project.
Here the architect put a lot of information that must be processed, maps, contour of the land, boundaries, area, etc. For planners then, is a ton of files.
Preliminary study: in This phase the information has been analyzed, the professional search conceptual references and launches the first traces of what will come to be a initial sketch of the project, expressing this by means of sketches, diagrams, graphs, models, etc.
All of this can be analyzed and discussed with the client in a process of creation. And the interesting thing is that all that information that affects the project is positive, in a way, it provides a starting point for the architect, a targeting. The one that prevents the syndrome of the white paper, blocking the creative.
Has architects who complain of the constraints, but without this it would be much more difficult to create, I imagine Oscar Niemeyer when Lúcio Costa said: Okay here “filhão”, designs ai, the terrain is this. (me referring to the Brasilia)
Just to contextualize Lucio Costa was the urban planner of Brasilia, with whom Oscar Niemeyer had previously worked and who it was intended for the design of local buildings, a city built from scratch, with few constraints, only the objective of centralizing the brazilian government.
Draft: In the draft those concept ideas earlier begin to take the form of architecture, with plans, sections, elevations, and finally the drawings already arranged in the space so that it is legible with measurements, areas, specifications.
This is still a phase of changes in the intense and long conversations with the client until the final approval of the project.
Project Cool: project cool as the name already says, has to do with legislation, technical standards, approval of the government, this phase of the project with the measures and ready to be approved by the local municipality.
Project Executive: Already the project executive is a construction manual, here the architectural project is detalhadíssimo, so that the master of works (who is the guy that commands the work) to know exactly where you are going each screw.
In the phase of the project executive the project of architecture is harmonized with the complementary projects: structural, hydraulic, electrical, plaster, etc.
The architect is responsible for the compatibility, to no error, no waste pipe going in the middle of the pillar, no toilet step.
Here are done details on top of details and the lay people may not understand the complexity of the plants and the references of the project.
And finally, today, after construction the property owner gets a document that is called The Built, that is similar to a manual car that brings all the documentation and the changes made to the property (when it comes to buildings).
The duties of Architects
Is the assignment of the architects:
- The survey data and the technical feasibility study and environmental;
- Provide consultancy, advisory, survey, expertise, evaluation, monitoring, appraisal, technical advice, audit and arbitration;
- The design and organization of spaces, external and internal, determining techniques and building materials;
- The supervision, management, monitoring and guidance of construction and reform (a function shared with the engineering);
- Determine construction techniques and materials;
- Perform budget, cost management and workforce;
- Training, education, research and university extension.
And other activities that are described by the Council of Architecture and Urbanism (CAU)and the Institute of Architects of Brazil (IAB), the bodies that regulate the profession of architecture.
The area of Expertise of Architects
I’ve talked a little bit about some of the areas that the architects act: buildings, landscape, urbanism, interiors, and restoration. The professional performance is directly related to the curricular guidelines in the university, or is, depends on the curriculum which the educational institution offers.
Not every architect is licensed, only those that had a trained architect and urban planner within their curriculum.
However, the teaching of architecture in Brazil, always prioritized the training of a professional multi-disciplinary involving several fields of study, and without entering in the merits of the issue whether it is positive or negative to form good professionals, there is a current of thought and institutions that offer courses with specialized training, for example: graduations unique in the architecture of interiors, or restore, or in other fields that are a fragment of what is considered to be the range of an architect.
This current argues that it is not necessary to have a global training architecture, a specialized training gains in quality instead of offering a full training and with little emphasis on specific fields. That idea that the one who does everything does nothing right.
But, the architecture has a strong vein in the period of the renaissance and the idea of a “man polymath”, or also called homo universalis (universal man), which is dominated by the idea that knowledge should not be restricted to one area but have a vast knowledge on various subjects, a full training.
I confess that I am completely divided – perhaps by being geminiana :p. Since at the same time I believe that the emphasis in a discipline that improves the quality of the study, on the other hand I believe that having a view of the whole open your mind to new possibilities, new solutions.
And perhaps by believing that education is not limited to college I’m split between a graduate specialist and the possibility of a multidisciplinary study later, or the universal education of architecture and the possibility of the specialization post-graduation.
In any case these are the main areas of work of the architects:
Architecture buildings, interior architecture, restoration, urban planning, landscape, lighting technique, design furniture and products, technology, construction, acoustic solutions and sound, thermal solutions, automation solutions, projects, gypsum, topography, among others.
Who has not heard of Oscar Niemeyer, the centenary of the brazilian architect who designed beautiful buildings in Brasilia, but Brazil is not made only of modernist architects such as oscar Niemeyer, Paulo Mendes da Rocha and Vilanova Artigas (FAU-usp).
The contemporary architecture gains a new face in the hand of brazilian architects featured as: Arthur Casas, Brazil Architecture, Carla Juaçaba, MMBB Architects, Ruy Othake, UNA Architects, among other good architects national.
What is Urbanism?
Urban planning is the land use planning, urban, architecture is in the macro scale, in many countries the formation of the urban planner is distinct from architecture, but here this training follows united, therefore, the abbreviation AU is used in the universities (Architecture and Urbanism).
In urbanism in the areas of professional practice, the most common are: land division (read subdivision, dismemberment and remembramento of land), inventory, urban, land tenure, projects in the road system, parking lots, urban accessibility, urban furniture, public lighting, visual communication, public urban mobility systems, signage, planning of the use and occupation of land, planning and survey of the need for social interest housing, environmental protection, harmonization of the road, changes in zoning, etc.
The planner works along with a series of professionals: sociologists, biologists, economists, politicians, traffic engineers, engineers sanitary, landscapers, lawyers, among others. Next will be they planners to plan the city, the zoning, use and occupation of land, urban mobility, always thinking in the collective, dealing with laws, public consultations, politicians, etc.
Also work on planning and regional development, in the relationship between cities, between states.
It is part of the public sector, but can also act in the private sector for the harmonization of urban large projects, mobility projects, in the division of land into lots for business allotments.
City Planners Famous
As an example of the planners to be famous I already quoted an architect and urban planner Lúcio Costa, who made the Pilot Plan of Brasília, and I as a here proud like to quote also the urban Planner Jaime Lerner, who is internationally recognised for its urban projects here and in the world, mainly for the solution of transport adopted in Curitiba with channels for exclusive use by buses and for being a creator of IPPUC – Instituto de Pesquisa e Planejamento Urbano de Curitiba, an institution that is exemplary in the area of urbanism.
If you want to be a city planner come and discover Curitiba, and the library is full of good projects of the IPPUC.
What is Landscaping?
The landscaping plans and organizes the landscape and has been active since the planning of the garden, private residence, up to the squares, parks, ecological reserves and environmental, commanding the space that can be used for the purposes of environmental preservation, the use of public or private.
Being the landscaping in the area of architecture that promotes socialization, urban, because the parks and squares are meeting points for social.
On a smaller scale, the landscape architect works together with professionals of gardening and of architecture of buildings, on a large scale he operates on the side of urban planners, biologists, forestry engineers, sociologists, among other professionals.
To be a landscape architect it is necessary to have a broad knowledge in botany, one thing that architecture school does not teach and that the professional should seek to learn.
But, it’s not only plants make a landscape, in fact, there is also the so-called landscaping dry, without the presence of vegetable, think of a desert, even in the absence of vegetation in the wilderness does not cease to be a landscape.
As well as the Memorial to the Jews Killed in Europe, in Berlin, a square in the dry project of the landscape architect Peter Eisenman.
Landscape Designers Famous
Here in Brazil I’m going to quote three landscape gardeners highlight: the Rosa Kliass, a pioneer woman made history by founding the Brazilian Association of Landscape Architects – ABAP in 1975, among its numerous projects are the Youth Park in São Paulo, and reform in the valley of the Anhangabaú.
Also the plastic artist Roberto Burle Marx who scored the landscaping brazil between 1934 and 1990, among the numerous works include the first ecological park of the Reef in 1937, the landscaping of the Museum of Modern Art of rio de janeiro and the Monumental Axis in Brasilia.
As I brought two landscapers with a strong performance in the macro-scale the third reference is contemporary and serves on the landscaping, residential landscaper Renata Responsibility”, considered the “landscape of the famous” for having made the garden of the residence of the actress Carolina Dieckmann among others, she acts always with great architects in residential projects such as Casa MM, Casa Cobogó, House P.
What is Architecture? Video
To finalize I would like to summarize all of this in an animated video that in an entertaining way sums up a little of what I said here made by the National Federation of Architects and urban Planners (FNA)
If you have any questions about the profession of the architect, about the training, college, orders the ai in the comments, write your opinion, leave your message.
A big hug and I hope in other posts ArquiDicas.
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